Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Significant Accounting Policies
The significant accounting policies and estimates used in preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are described in the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2021, and the notes thereto, which are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. There have been no material changes to the Company’s significant accounting policies during the three months ended September 30, 2022 outside of the items as described below.
Leases as a Lessee
Prior to January 1, 2022, the Company accounted for leases in accordance with ASC 840, Leases. At lease inception, the Company determined if an arrangement was an operating or capital lease. For operating leases, the Company recognized rent expense, inclusive of rent escalation, on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Effective on January 1, 2022, the Company accounts for leases in accordance with ASC 842, Leases. At contract inception, the Company determines if an arrangement is or contains a lease. A lease conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. If determined to be or contain a lease, the lease is assessed for classification as either an operating or finance lease at the lease commencement date, defined as the date on which the leased asset is made available for use by the Company (when the Company is the lessee). Where the Company is the lessee, for each lease with a term greater than twelve months, the Company records a right-of-use asset and lease liability.
A right-of-use asset represents the economic benefit conveyed to the Company by the right to use the underlying asset over the lease term. A lease liability represents the obligation to make lease payments arising from the use of the asset over the lease term. Lease liabilities are measured at lease commencement and calculated as the present value of the future lease payments in the contract using the rate implicit in the contract, when available. If an implicit rate is not readily determinable, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate measured as the rate at which the Company could borrow, on a fully collateralized basis, a commensurate loan in the same currency over a period consistent with the lease term at the commencement date. Right-of-use assets are measured as the amount of the initial lease liability plus initial direct costs and prepaid lease payments, less lease incentives granted by the lessor. The lease term is measured as the noncancelable period in the contract, adjusted for any options to extend or terminate when it is reasonably certain the Company will extend the lease term via such options based on an assessment of economic factors present as of the lease commencement date. The Company elected the practical expedient to not recognize leases with a lease term of twelve months or less.
Components of a lease are split into three categories: lease components, non-lease components, and non-components. The fixed and in-substance fixed contract consideration (including any consideration related to non-components) are allocated, based on the respective relative fair values, to the lease components and non-lease components. The Company has elected the practical expedient to account for lease and non-lease components together as a single lease component for all underlying assets and allocate all of the contract consideration to the lease component only.
The Company’s operating leases are presented in the condensed consolidated balance sheet as operating lease right-of-use assets, classified as noncurrent assets, and operating lease liabilities, classified as current and noncurrent liabilities. Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Variable costs associated with a lease, such as maintenance and utilities, are not included in the measurement of the lease liabilities and right-of-use assets but rather are expensed when the events determining the amount of variable consideration to be paid have occurred.
Subscription Revenue - Leases as Lessor
In addition to selling our products directly to customers, we also derive revenue from leasing our equipment, which we classify as subscription revenue. Lease terms are typically four years, generally do not include unilateral options by either the Company or our customer to extend, terminate or to purchase the underlying asset, and customers generally pay either a quarterly or annual fixed payment for the lease and maintenance elements over the contractual lease term. Equipment leases are generally classified as operating leases as they do not meet any of the sales-type lease criteria per ASC 842 and recognized ratably over the duration of the lease. There are no variable lease payments as a part of these arrangements.
The accounting provisions we use to classify transactions as sales-type are: (i) whether the lease transfers ownership of the equipment by the end of the lease term, (ii) whether the lease grants the customer an option to purchase the equipment and the customer is reasonably certain to do so, (iii) whether the lease term is for the major part of the economic life of the underlying equipment, (iv) whether the present value of the lease payments, and any residual value guaranteed by the customer that is not already reflected in the lease payments, is equal to or greater than substantially all of the fair market value of the equipment at the commencement of the lease, and (v) whether the equipment is specific to the customer and of such a specialized nature that it is expected to have no alternative use to the Company at the end of the lease term. Leasing arrangements meeting any of these conditions are accounted for as sales-type leases and revenue attributable to the lease component is recognized in a manner consistent with product revenue and the related equipment is derecognized with the associated expense presented as a cost of revenue. Leasing arrangements that do not meet the criteria for classification as a sales-type lease will be accounted for as a direct-financing lease if the following two conditions are met: (i) the present value of the lease payments, and any residual value guaranteed by the customer that is not already reflected in the lease payments and any other third party unrelated to the Company, is equal to or greater than substantially all of the fair market value of the equipment at the commencement of the lease, and (ii) it is probable that the Company will collect the lease payments and amounts necessary to satisfy a residual value guarantee. Leasing arrangements that do not meet any of the sales-type lease or direct-financing lease classification criteria are accounted for as operating leases and revenue is recognized straight-line over the term of the lease.
The Company considers the economic life of most of our products to be seven years. The Company believes seven years is representative of the period during which the equipment is expected to be economically usable by one or more users, with normal service, for the purpose for which it is intended. The unguaranteed residual value is estimated to be the value at the end of the lease term based on the anticipated fair market value of the units. The Company mitigates residual value risk of our leased equipment by performing regular management and maintenance, as necessary.
Generally, lease arrangements include both lease and non-lease components. The lease component relates to the customer’s right-to-use the equipment over the lease term. The non-lease components relate to (1) distinct services, such as SaaS and maintenance, (2) any add-on accessories, and (3) installation and training. Installation and training are included in service revenue as described below, and add-on accessories are included in product revenue. Because the equipment, SaaS, and maintenance components of a subscription arrangement are recognized as revenue over the same time period and in the same pattern, the Company elected the practical expedient to aggregate non-lease components with the associated lease component and account for the combined component as an operating lease for all underlying asset classes. In the evaluation of whether the lease component (equipment) or the non-lease components associated with the lease component (SaaS and maintenance) is the predominant component, the Company determined that the lease component is predominant as we believe the customer would ascribe more value to the use of the security equipment than that of the SaaS and maintenance services. Therefore, the Company will account for the combined lease component under ASC 842. The equipment lease and SaaS/maintenance performance obligations are classified as a single category of subscription revenue in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The installation and training services represent distinct services provided to customers. These activities are considered separate performance obligations to the customer and therefore are considered non-lease components. As installation and training services are performed prior to lease commencement, the timing and pattern of transfer for these services differ from that of the lease component (i.e., security hardware) and are not eligible to be combined.
We exclude from variable payments all lessor costs that are explicitly required to be paid directly by a lessee on behalf of the lessor to a third party. Revenue related to leases entered into with related parties were $0.2 million and $0.4 million during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, respectively.
Installation and training are generally billed to the lessee as part of the lease contract billing, according to various contractual terms. The installation and training costs incurred by the Company are accounted for as a fulfillment cost and are included in the cost of services revenue in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016-02”), as subsequently amended (collectively “ASC 842”). The guidance amends the existing accounting standards for lease accounting, including requirements for lessees to recognize assets and liabilities related to long-term leases on the balance sheet and expanding disclosure requirements regarding leasing arrangements. For lessees, leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the income statement. Lessors are required to classify leases as a sales-type, direct financing, or operating lease. A lease is a sales-type lease if it effectively transfers control of the underlying asset to the lessee as indicated by any one of five criteria being met. All leases that are not sales-type or direct financing leases will be classified as operating leases. In July 2018, the FASB issued additional guidance, which offers a transition option to entities adopting ASC 842 in which entities can elect to apply the new guidance using a modified retrospective approach at the beginning of the year in which the new lease standard is adopted. The Company utilized this transition option whereby financial information for prior periods presented before the ASC 842 effective date will not be updated. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-10 deferring the effective date for private entities (also applicable for public companies that qualify as emerging growth companies) for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. In June 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-05 which further defers the effective date for private entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022.
The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2022. ASC 842 provides several optional practical expedients in transition. The Company applied the ‘package of practical expedients’ which allow the Company to not reassess whether existing or expired arrangements contain a lease, the lease classification of existing or expired leases, or whether previous initial direct costs would qualify for capitalization under ASC 842.
The adoption of ASC 842 resulted in the recognition of operating lease liabilities of $3.0 million and operating right-of-use assets of $2.5 million, along with the write-off of certain deferred rent balances of $0.5 million within the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets as of January 1, 2022. The adoption did not have a significant impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss and condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (ASC 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various areas related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in ASC 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. For public entities the guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020 and for interim periods within those fiscal years. For non-public entities, the guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2021 and for interim periods within years beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2022 and the adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies and clarifies certain calculation and presentation matters related to convertible and equity and debt instruments. Specifically, ASU 2020-06 removes requirements to separately account for conversion features as a derivative under ASC Topic 815 and removing the requirement to account for beneficial conversion features on such instruments. ASU 2020-06 also provides clearer guidance surrounding disclosure of such instruments and provides specific guidance for how such instruments are to be incorporated in the calculation of Diluted EPS. The guidance under ASU 2020-06 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal
years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company adopted this guidance effective January 1, 2022 and the adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
The Company qualifies as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and has elected not to “opt out” to the extended transition related to complying with new or revised accounting standards, which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public and nonpublic companies, the Company will adopt the new or revised standard at the time nonpublic companies adopt the new or revised standard and will do so until such time that the Company either (1) irrevocably elects to “opt out” of such extended transition period or (2) no longer qualifies as an emerging growth company. The Company may choose to early adopt any new or revised accounting standards whenever such early adoption is permitted for nonpublic companies.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments — Credit Losses (Topic 326) (“ASU 2016-13”). The new standard adjusts the accounting for assets held at amortized cost basis, including marketable securities accounted for as available for sale, and trade receivables. The standard eliminates the probable initial recognition threshold and requires an entity to reflect its current estimate of all expected credit losses. The allowance for credit losses is a valuation account that is deducted from the amortized cost basis of the financial assets to present the net amount expected to be collected. For public entities except smaller reporting companies, the guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019 and for interim periods within those fiscal years. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-10, which deferred the effective date for non-public entities and smaller reporting companies to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is allowed. The Company expects to adopt this guidance effective January 1, 2023, and does not expect that adoption of the guidance will have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-08, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers, which amends ASC 805 to add contract assets and contract liabilities to the list of exceptions to the recognition and measurement principles that apply to business combinations and to require that an entity (acquirer) recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606. The amendments in ASU 2021-08 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years and should be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date of the amendments. Early adoption of the amendments is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company expects to adopt this guidance effective January 1, 2023, and does not expect that adoption of the guidance will have a material impact on its condensed consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef